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Posted by star on 2020-01-07 11:15:56 Hits:25
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In Dec 2019, Ivan Ivanov, scientist from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and his team published their research of Protease Activity in Single-Chain Prekallikrein.
Plasma prekallikrein, the precursor of the enzyme kallikrein, has intrinsic proteolytic activity. Prekallikrein activity may contribute to bradykinin production and to initiation of contact activation when blood is exposed surfaces.
Prekallikrein (PK) is the precursor of the trypsin-like plasma protease kallikrein (PKa), which cleaves kininogens to release bradykinin and converts the protease precursor factor XII (FXII) to the enzyme FXIIa. PK and FXII undergo reciprocal conversion to their active forms (PKa and FXIIa) by a process that is accelerated by a variety of biological and artificial surfaces.The surface-mediated process is referred to as contact activation. 
Previously, we showed that FXII expresses a low level of proteolytic activity (independently of FXIIa) that may initiate reciprocal activation with PK. The current study was undertaken to determine if PK expresses similar activity. 
Recombinant PK that cannot be converted to PKa was prepared by replacing Argwith alanine at the activation cleavage site (PK-R371A, or single chain PK). Despite being constrained to the single chain precursor form, PK-R371A cleaves high molecular weight kininogen to release bradykinin with a catalytic efficiency ~1500-fold lower than that of PKa cleavage of HK. In the presence of a surface,PK-R371A converts FXII to FXIIa with a specific activity ~4-orders of magnitude lower than for PKa cleavage of FXII. These results support the notion that activity intrinsic to PK and FXII can initiate reciprocal activation of FXII and PK in solution or on a surface. 
The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the putative zymogens of many trypsin-like proteases are actually active proteases, explaining their capacity to undergo processes such as autoactivation, and to initiate enzyme cascades.
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