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Posted by star on 2021-11-02 13:16:05 Hits:43
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, responsible for almost 1 in every 3 deaths. While in past decades guidelines generally suggested the avoidance of dietary fats for cardiovascular health, there is now growing evidence that the type and dietary source of fat may be more important for CVD risk than the total amount. In particular, there is emerging evidence regarding the role of dairy fats and CVD. While increased intake of saturated fat from dairy is expected to increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, recent human clinical studies found that such effects differ depending on the type of dairy products as well as the processing methods. Long-term observational studies have found no association between total dairy consumption and risk of CVD, with differences in association observed for the type of dairy product rather than the amount of fat in dairy products (e.g., regular versus reduced fat dairy products). Such findings have generated debate as to whether dietary or clinical guidelines based predominantly on considerations of the saturated fat content of dairy foods are appropriate.
Many dietary guidelines recommend limiting dairy fat consumption in order to lower saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
However, increasing evidence suggests that the health impact of dairy foods is more dependent on the type (e.g., cheese, yoghurt, milk, and butter) rather than the fat content, which has raised doubts if avoidance of dairy fats is beneficial for cardiovascular health.
Dairy foods are a major source of nutrients, and their consumption is increasing worldwide; thus, it is important to advance our understanding of the impact of dairy fat on CVD risk.
Scientists from Harvard University, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of New South Wales and Uppsala University aimed to investigate the association of serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a Swedish cohort study. We also systematically reviewed studies of the association of dairy fat biomarkers (circulating or adipose tissue levels of 15:0, heptadecanoic acid [17:0], and trans-palmitoleic acid [t16:1n-7]) with CVD outcomes or all-cause mortality.
They measured dairy fat consumption using an objective biomarker, serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), in 4,150 Swedish 60-year-olds and collected information about CVD events and deaths during a median follow-up of 16.6 years.
When they accounted for known risk factors including demographics, lifestyle, and disease prevalence, the CVD risk was lowest for those with high levels of the dairy fat biomarker 15:0, while those with biomarker levels around the median had the lowest risk of all-cause mortality.
They also conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, and the combined evidence from 18 studies also showed higher levels of 2 dairy fat biomarkers (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid 17:0) were linked with lower risk of CVD, but not with all-cause mortality.
The findings from this study using fatty acid biomarkers suggest that higher intake of dairy fat were associated with lower CVD risk in diverse populations including Sweden (a country with high dairy intake), though more trials are needed to understand if and how dairy foods protect cardiovascular health.
Higher circulating pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, was associated with lower risk of CVD in this large population-based cohort study in Sweden. Our meta-analysis supports this finding, showing that higher levels of both odd-chain dairy fat biomarkers 15:0 and 17:0 were associated with lower CVD risk but not t16: 1n-7. Our findings call for clinical and experimental studies to ascertain the causality of the relationship and the potential role of dairy foods in CVD prevention.
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